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All About Archery

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

There are multiple kinds of archery, each with its own rules and methods of shooting.

Target Archery

Target archery is the most popular form of archery, in which members shoot at stationary circular targets at varying distances. All types of bow – longbow, barebow, recurve and compound – can be used. In Great Britain, imperial rounds, measured in yards, are still used for many tournaments and these have slightly different rules to metric (WA) rounds, which are used internationally. Archers are divided into seniors and juniors, with juniors being those under the age of 18.
Modern competitive target archery is governed by the World Archery Federation (abbreviated WA), formerly FITA – Fédération Internationale de Tir à l'Arc. WA is the International Olympic Committee's (IOC) recognized governing body for all of archery and Olympic rules are derived from the WA rules.
Currently 142 nations are represented by WA archery governing bodies. The largest of these are the FFTA (French archery federation) with approximately 60,000 members, FITARCO (Italian federation), DSB (German federation), AJAF (All-Japan Archery Federation), and the GNAS (Grand National Archery Society) of Great Britain, with approximately 30,000 members which has now re-branded itself as Archery GB. In the United States the WA affiliated governing body is USA Archery (National Archery Association of the United States), which dates to the 1870s, making it the third oldest archery governing body after GNAS and FITARCO, which date to the 1860s.
An indoor archery competition.
Archery competitions may be held indoors or outdoors. Indoor rounds are normally shot at one distance, whereas outdoor competitions normally consist of several distances. For lists of tournament rounds, see section entitled Tournament Rounds. Since archery involves the use of potentially lethal equipment, much attention is paid to order and safety. Whistle commands are used to signal the different phases of shooting, or an 'end'. Two whistle blasts means archers can approach the shooting line. One whistle blast means archers can begin shooting. The archers are not allowed to collect their arrows whilst other archers are shooting. The signal to collect your arrows is three whistles from the field captain. These rules apply to all forms of target archery. Other rules, or points of etiquette, include:
The command Fast means stop shooting immediately and return the unshot arrow to the quiver. It is used when the situation becomes suddenly and unexpectedly dangerous. Do not distract another archer when they are shooting. If an archer is at full draw, wait before taking your place on the shooting line. If an archer damages another archer's arrows (or other equipment), they must offer to pay for any damages.
Metric Rounds (WA rules)
For a 1440 round, known until 2014 as 'FITA Round', outdoor distances range from 30 to 90 m (33 to 98 yards) for senior Gentlemen archers, and 30 to 70 m (33 to 77 yards) for Ladies. The juniors have shorter targets to shoot at. In Olympic archery, 70 m (77 yards) is the standard range. Indoor distances are either 18 or 25 m (20 or 27 yards).
Competition is divided into ends. An archer shoots either 3 or 6 arrows per end, depending on the type of round. After each end, the competitors walk to the target to score and retrieve their arrows. An indoor competition is usually 20 ends of 3 arrows.
Archers have a set time limit in which to shoot their arrows. For indoor competition, under World Archery Federation rules this is 2 minutes for 3 arrows. Signalling devices such as lights and flags inform the archers when time is up. For a 1440 outdoor round the archer has 4 minutes to shoot 6 arrows at the two longer distances, and 2 minutes to shoot 3 arrows at the remaining two shorter distances.
Imperial Rounds (GNAS rules)
For Imperial rounds, the standard indoor distance is 20 yards (18 m), with 5 dozen arrows being shot in a round known as a Portsmouth round. Outdoor distances range from 40 yards (37 m) to 100 yards (91 m), for seniors, and 10 yards (9.1 m) to 80 yards (73 m) for juniors.
Competition is divided into ends. An archer shoots either 3 arrows per end (indoors) or 6 arrows per end (outdoors). After each end, the competitors walk to the target to score and retrieve their arrows. An indoor Worcester round shoots in ends of 5 arrows.
At all record status tournaments, archers must adhere to the AGB dress code. The recognized dress is plain dark green and/or white, or 'club colours'. Club colours are unique to a club, and registered on the AGB shooting colour register. However, any colour garments may be worn with the exception of blue denim, olive drab and camouflage pattern.
In a tournament, awards are normally split into categories according to bowstyle, gender and, for juniors, age. All registered AGB archers also have an indoor and an outdoor classification, and classification awards may also be presented - this allows archers to only shoot against those of the same ability.
Classification grades
Senior Junior
3rd Class 3rd Class
2nd Class 2nd Class
1st Class 1st Class
Bowman Junior Bowman
Master Bowman Junior Master Bowman
Grand Master Bowman
The Grand National Archery Society runs two systems of classification: the main Classifications (for indoor and outdoor shooting) and Handicaps. To do this, they produce tables of scores for all recognised rounds and an archer's classification and handicap can be worked out from their scores, normally by a club's Record Officer.
For indoor rounds, an archer has a classification represented by a letter from A to H, with A being the best and H the worst. This applies for both seniors and juniors.
Standard WA targets are marked with 10 evenly spaced concentric rings, which generally have score values from 1 through 10 assigned to them, except in outdoor Imperial rounds under AGB rules, where they have score values 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9. In addition, there is an inner 10 ring, sometimes called the X ring. This becomes the 10 ring at indoor compound competitions. Outdoors, it serves as a tiebreaker with the archer scoring the most X's winning. The number of hits may also be taken into account as another tiebreaker. In World Archery, targets are coloured as follows:
1 ring & 2 ring – white
3 ring & 4 ring – black
5 ring & 6 ring – blue
7 ring & 8 ring – red
9 ring, 10 ring & inner 10 ring – yellow
The inner ring is usually used for tie-breaking (the competitor closest to the X is the winner)
Archers score each end by summing the scores for their arrows. An arrow just touching a scoring boundary line, known as a Line Breaker or Line Cutter, is awarded the higher score. Values scored by each arrow are recorded on a score sheet and must be written in descending order (e.g. if an archer scores 5, 7, 6, 10, 9, 8, this must be recorded as 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5). During and before scoring no one is allowed to touch the arrows. This is so that if there is disputed arrow score then a judge may be called and the judge makes a ruling on how the arrow lies. The archer in charge of scoring on a target at a tournament is known as the ''Target Captain'' and in larger tournaments, they may be assisted by a ''Target Lieutenant''; a Target Captain makes an initial judgment on all disputed arrows. Under WA rules, in major tournaments, after scoring, each hole is marked before arrows are retrieved. In the event of a "pass through" (the arrow passes straight through the target) or "bouncer" (arrow hits the target and bounces out), points may be awarded to an unmarked hole. Under AGB rules, and in some smaller tournaments, in the case of a bouncer, the archer must step off the shooting line and hold their bow in the air. A judge then decides whether the archer is permitted to shoot a replacement arrow. If an archer accidentally shoots more arrows than allowed, the highest scoring arrow is not counted and a miss is recorded.
Different rounds and distances use different size target faces. Common sizes (and example rounds they are used in) are:
40 cm (16 in) (18 m [20 yd] WA Indoor Compound)
60 cm (24 in) (18 m [20 yd] WA Indoor Recurve)
80 cm (31 in) (30 and 50 m [33 and 55 yd] WA)
122 cm (48 in) (70 and 90 m [77 and 98 yd] WA)
122 centimetres (48 in) faces are used in Olympic competition. A variant of the 80-centimetre (31 in) face, called a "Spot" may be used when shooting WA rounds. This variant shows only the inner 6 rings of a full 80-centimetre (31 in) face. There are also versions of the 40-and-60-centimetre (16 and 24 in) targets known as the "3 Spot". The targets contain 3 instances of the inner 5 rings of the 40-and-60-centimetre (16 and 24 in) faces arranged in a line or an equilateral triangle. This is to stop competitors from damaging their own arrows by shooting a "robin hood".
Tournament rounds
Imperial rounds (measured in yards) are mainly shot in the United Kingdom. Metric rounds, also known as WA rounds, measured in metres, are used for most other tournaments.
Imperial rounds
These rounds use 5-zone scoring, as opposed to the usual 10-zone scoring. The points are awarded as follows: 9 for a gold, 7 for a red, 5 for a blue, 3 for a black and 1 for a white. Arrows are shot at increasingly closer distances - for example, in a York round, an archer shoots six dozen at 100 yards (91 m), followed by four dozen at 80 yards (73 m), followed by two dozen at 60 yards (55 m). Senior rounds are for archers aged 18 and over and junior rounds are for archers under the age of 18.
Metric rounds
These rounds use standard 10-zone scoring. For outdoor rounds, arrows are shot at increasingly closer distances - for example, in a Gents 1440 round, an archer shoots three dozen at 90 m (98 yards), followed by three dozen at 70 m (77 yards), then three dozen at 50 m (55 yards), then three dozen at 30 m (33 yards). The furthest two distances are shot on a 122-centimetre (48 in) face target; the nearer two on an 80-centimetre (31 in) face target.

Field archery

Field archery From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Field archery involves shooting at targets of varying and often unmarked distance, typically in woodland and rough terrain. As well as being a sport in its own right, it can be used to improve the techniques and abilities required for bowhunting in a realistic outdoor setting. Archers sometimes refer to the additional skills required to deal with challenging terrain and lighting as "fieldcraft".
Events are usually conducted according to the rules of either the International Field Archery Association (IFAA)[2] or the World Archery Federation (WA). Others may be held under the rules of national organisations such as the UK National Field Archery Society (NFAS) and the US National Field Archery Association (NFAA).
IFAA/NFAA International Field Archery Association (IFAA) and US National Field Archery Association (NFAA)[3] competitions include three rounds: field, hunter, and animal. A round consists of 28 targets in two units of 14.
Field rounds are at 'even' distances up to 80 yards (75 m) (although some of the shortest are measured in feet), using targets with a black inner ring, two white middle rings and two black outer rings. Four face sizes are used for the various distances. A score of five points is awarded for shots which hit the centre spot, four for the white inner ring, and three for the outer black ring.
Hunter rounds use 'uneven' distances up to 70 yards (65 m). Scoring is similar to a field round, the target has an all-black face with a white bullseye. Child and youth positions for these two rounds are closer, no more than 30 and 50 yards (25 and 45 m), respectively.
Animal rounds use life-size 2D animal targets with 'uneven' distances reminiscent of the hunter round. The rules and scoring are also significantly different. The archer begins at the first station of the target and shoots his first arrow. If it hits, he does not have to shoot again. If it misses, he advances to station two and shoots a second arrow, then to station three for a third if needed. Scoring areas are vital (20, 16, or 12) and nonvital (18, 14, or 10) with points awarded depending on which arrow scored first. Again, children and youth shoot from reduced range.
3D rounds use life-size models of game animals such as deer. It is most common to see unmarked distances in 3D archery, as the goal is to accurately recreate a hunting environment for competition, albeit a more loosely organized form of competition than other types of field archery. Though the goal is hunting practice, hunting tips (broadheads) are not used, as they would tear up the foam targets too much. Normal target or field tips, of the same weight as the intended broadhead, are used instead.
WA Field
The World Archery Federation, commonly known as WA and formerly as FITA (Fédération Internationale de Tir à l'Arc), defines a suite of rounds based on a 24-target course.
Four target face sizes are specified: 80 cm (30 inches); 60 cm (25 inches); 40 cm (15 inches) and 20 cm (8 inches). Six target faces of each size are used on the course. For each target face size there are upper and lower distance limits for the various divisions of archer. Target faces have four black outer rings and a yellow spot, each with an equal width. The yellow spot is subdivided into two rings. The black rings score 1 point for the outermost to 4 points for the innermost. A hit in the outer yellow scores 5 points. A hit in the inner yellow scores 6 points. Before April 2008, the innermost yellow ring counted as an X (the number of Xs was used for tie-breaks) but only scored 5 points.
Shooting positions are marked by coloured pegs set at a distance from each target. Generally the red peg is set the furthest from the target, the blue peg is set nearer, and the yellow peg (or white peg in the UK) is set the nearest. The course layer may choose to vary this, though. Each peg is associated with one or more divisions of archer:
Pegs for archer divisions
Peg colour Division
Red Recurve and compound
Blue Bare bow, cadet recurve and cadet compound
Yellow Cadet bare bow
The UK operates some variations on this for junior archers. When shooting marked distances, the distance to the target is shown on each peg. On unmarked distances, the distance is not shown.
A WA 24 Marked round is shot on a single day using 24 targets at marked distances only. A WA 24 Unmarked round is shot on a single day using 24 targets at unmarked distances only. A WA 24 Mixed round is shot on a single day using 12 targets at marked distances and 12 targets at unmarked distances. A WA Combined Field round consists of a WA 24 Unmarked round shot on one day and a WA 24 Marked round shot on the same course the following day with the distances having been increased.
WA rules state that the lanes between the shooting positions and the targets must not be obstructed by branches or tree trunks.
Archers follow the course in groups of between two and four. The pegs are arranged so that two people can shoot from one peg at the same time. Each archer shoots three arrows at each target, making a round of 72 arrows.
National Field Archery Society (UK) In the United Kingdom, the National Field Archery Society (NFAS) sets the rules for many shoots, including Big Game and 3D shoots. Most of these consist of 36 or 40 targets or 2×20 targets. The NFAS is not affiliated to any international organisation. According to the NFAS Rules of Shooting:[7][8]
The most common NFAS rounds have a "walk-up" format, where the archer starts at the furthest peg from the target; if the archer fails to score, they proceed to the next closest peg. For an adult of 16 and over these pegs are coloured red, white, and blue. The archer is allowed a maximum of three shots per target.[8]
14 and 15 year olds shoot their first arrow from the white peg. If additional arrows are required, both of these are shot from the blue peg. Archers aged 12 years of age and under 14 shoot their first arrow from the blue peg. If additional arrows are required, both of these are shot from the yellow peg. Archers 9 years of age and under 12 years of age shoot their first arrow from the yellow peg. If additional arrows are required, these are also shot from the yellow peg. Archers aged under 9 years of age (‘Cubs under 9’) shoot their first arrow from the orange peg. If additional arrows are required, these are also shot from the orange peg. The points scored for the under 16 pegs follow the same format as the adult 1st, 2nd and 3rd pegs.
Scoring for a typical Big Game round
Peg colour Points
Inner kill zone Kill zone Wound zone
Red 24 20 16
White – 14 10
Blue – 8 4
The inner kill zone is only used on some targets, and only for the first arrow shot from the furthest peg. The wound zone is marked by wound lines on 2D targets, or by any target hit outside the kill zone excluding the antlers, hooves and target base.[8]
There are multiple classes including American flatbow, barebow, bowhunter, compound limited, freestyle, hunting tackle, longbow, primitive, traditional bowhunter, unlimited, and crossbow.
All archers attending these shoots must carry a valid NFAS card in order to shoot. The NFAS holds annual championships open to all members. Generally, two championships are held per year: the 3D Championships (in May) and the National Championships (in September). Participants for these events must have competed in three open shoots in the bow style that they wish to shoot, or have participated in a previous Championship.

Clout archery

Clout archery is a form of archery in which archers shoot arrows at a flag (known as "the Clout") from a relatively long distance and score points depending on how close each arrow lands to the flag.
Scoring zones are defined by maximum radii from the flag pole. Each arrow scores points depending on which scoring zone it enters the ground in. An arrow embedded in the flag pole is counted as being in the highest scoring zone. If an arrow is lying on the ground, it is considered to be in the scoring zone in which its point lies.
The scoring zones may be marked on the ground. Where this is not practical, a non-stretch rope or chain marked with the radii of the scoring zones is attached to the flag pole and swept around it to determine which arrows are in which zones.
A designated person collects the arrows in each zone, sorts them into sets, and lays them on the ground. Each archer in turn points to his or her arrows and calls out the scores in descending order.
A single clout round consists of three dozen arrows, shot in ends of 6 arrows. Tournaments typically consist of a double clout round, in which a total of six dozen arrows is shot.
Archery GB clout
The Archery GB version of clout is used in the United Kingdom. The information in this section is drawn from Part 7 Clout Shooting of the Grand National Archery Society's Rules of Shooting. (GNAS 2008)
Flags are set at specified distances for combinations of age and gender. The archer's bow type does not affect the distance the archer shoots.
Each flag consists of a 12-inch (30 cm) square piece of coloured fabric on a short softwood pole, the flag to be as close to the ground as is practical.
Shooting may be "one way" or "two way":
one way shooting: a single shooting line and a single set of flags are set up at opposite ends of the range. The archers shoot from the shooting line towards the flags, walk to the flags without their bows to score and collect their arrows, then walk back to the shooting line to continue shooting in the same direction.
two-way shooting: two shooting lines and two sets of flags are set up. One shooting line and one set of flags is placed at one end of the range; the other shooting line and other set of flags is placed at the other end. The archers shoot from one shooting line towards one set of flags, walk to the flags with their bows to score and collect their arrows, then turn around and shoot towards the other set of flags.
A minimum overshoot is required behind each set of flags.
Most Archery GB clout shoots are one-way.
ArcheryGB clout scoring
Maximum radius Points scored
18 inches (45 cm) 5
3 feet (0.9 m) 4
6 feet (2 m) 3
9 feet (2.5 m) 2
12 feet (3.5 m) 1
> 12 feet (3.5 m) 0
Each arrow scores points depending on which scoring zone it lands in. Scoring zones are defined by maximum radii from the flag pole.
BLBS clout
The British Long-Bow Society has its own form of clout shooting. The Society restricts the archers to the use of English longbows and wooden arrows.
Ladies shoot 120 yards (110 m), gentlemen 180 yards (160 m). BLBS clouts are generally two-way.
The target is a 30-inch (75 cm) diameter, white, resting on a frame at 45 degrees to the ground with a 4-inch (10 cm) central black spot. Concentric rings are marked at 30 inches (75 cm), 4 feet (1.2 m), 7 feet (2 m), 10 feet (3 m) and 13 feet (4 m) from the centre.
Scoring is 6 for a clout, down to 1 for the outside ring. 2 rounds of 36 arrows in 12 ends of 3 are shot to make a 'Double Clout Round'
At the Woodmen of Arden's traditional shoots, the 'marker' at the target end steps from behind his screen, lies on his back and waves his top hat in the air to signify that a clout has been scored.
WA clout
WA distances
Gender Bow type Distance
Men Recurve 165 m (180 yd)
Compound 185 m (200 yd)
Women Recurve 125 m (135 yd)
Compound 165 m (180 yd)
WA scoring zones
Maximum radius Points scored
1.5 m (5 ft) 5
3 m (10 ft) 4
4.5 m (15 ft) 3
6 m (20 ft) 2
7.5 m (25 ft) 1
> 7.5 m (25 ft) 0
Australian clout
The Archery Australia version of clout is used in Australia. The information in this section is drawn from Section 12 Clout Archery of the Archery Australia Constitution and Rules. (AUST – online version)
Several possible shooting distances are defined. The archer selects the distance he or she wants to shoot, though for record purposes only certain combinations of age class, gender, bow division and distance are recognised.
The same clout target may be used for archers shooting at different distances. A shooting line is set up for each distance and the shooting is staggered so that each distance is shot with safety in mind. All archers shoot at the same time.
Each clout consists of a point-down triangular structure (usually made from laminated cardboard, so as to prevent arrows passing through) not exceeding 45 cm (18 inches) high and 35 cm (14 inches) wide at its widest point on a suitable (e.g. softwood) pole, the clout to be 8 cm (3 inches) from the ground. Small flags are placed on each side of the clout at 1.5 m (5 feet) intervals, so that the archers can see where the outer edges of the even-numbered scoring zones are. The flags are colored as (from the centre), gold, red, blue, black and white (i.e. the colours of an archery target).
Shooting is only in one direction (generally to the south).
Each arrow scores points depending on which scoring zone it lands in. Scoring zones are defined by maximum radii from the flag pole. There are ten zones in Australian clout. Zones may be marked on the ground, but these are not used for scoring. Only the scoring zones marked on the rope or chain are used for scoring.
AA distances
180 m (200 yd)
165 m (180 yd)
145 m (159 yd)
125 m (137 yd)
100 m (110 yd)
AA scoring zones
Maximum radius Points scored
0.75 m (2.5 ft) 10
1.5 m (5 ft) 9
2.25 m (7.5 ft) 8
3 m (10 ft) 7
3.75 m (12.5 ft) 6
4.5 m (15 ft) 5
5.25 m (17 ft) 4
6 m (20 ft) 3
6.75 m (22 ft) 2
7.5 m (25 ft) 1
> 7.5 m (25 ft) 0

Bow Types

Archery is the sport, practice or skill of using a bow to propel arrows. The word comes from the Latin arcus. Historically, archery has been used for hunting and combat. In modern times, it is mainly a competitive sport and recreational activity. There are many different types of bow to shoot with, ranging in difficulty Beginner> Intermediate> Expert/Master> Bow master/Hunter/Olimpic, each kind of bow requires a new set of skills and equipment to master it
The recurve bow is usually your first foray into the world of archery. It is a good all-rounder, with a relatively easy learning curve for beginners and go's all the way up to Olimpic setups
Difficulty Beginner Intermediate Expert/Master #Olimpic
Price Range £150 - £5000
In modern archery, a compound bow is a bow that uses a levering system, usually of cables and pulleys, to bend the limbs. The pulley/cam system grants the user a mechanical advantage, and so the limbs of a compound bow are much stiffer than those of other bows. We recermend useing Beginner bows befor useing this type of bow.
Difficulty Intermediate Expert/Master #Hunter #Olimpic
Price Range £180 - £3,500
A longbow is a type of bow that is tall – roughly equal to the height of the user – allowing the archer a fairly long draw. A longbow is not significantly recurved. Its limbs are relatively narrow so that they are circular or D-shaped in cross section.
Difficulty Intermediate Expert/Master #Bow Master
Price Range £80 - £1050
Tho most of us now don't shoot from horseback anymore the horse bow is still a favourite amongst archers, first developed during the Iron Age, gradually replacing the Bronze Age chariot. Horse archers were eventually rendered obsolete by the maturity of firearm technology.
Difficulty Beginner Intermediate Expert/Master #Bow Master
Price Range £50 - £850

Wikipedia is an fantastic collective of information but can be overwhelming here is a link to Wikipedia Archery. If you need any help or information on archery then any archery club will happily help you out as much as thay can, we are all one archery family. wikipedia Archery